British Technology and European Industrialization: The by Kristine Bruland

By Kristine Bruland

How did small eu economies collect the applied sciences and abilities had to industrialize within the 19th century? during this very important contribution to a long-standing debate, Kristine Bruland appears on the Norwegian event to teach how a technological infrastructure used to be created, and means that a lot of this used to be as a result of the efforts of British laptop makers who from the mid 1840s vigorously sought international markets. offering not just uncomplicated technical companies but in addition expert labour to establish after which supervise the operation of the hot equipment, British cloth engineering organisations have been in a position to provide an entire 'package' of providers, considerably easing the preliminary technical difficulties confronted by way of Norwegian marketers. Kristine Bruland's case-study of the Norwegian fabric demonstrates essentially the anomaly that Britain's entrepreneurial efforts within the provide of capital items abroad have been mostly answerable for the production of the technical business bases of a lot of her significant international opponents.

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Hodne, Economic History of Norwayr, p. 103. T. Bergh et al, Growth and Development: the Norwegian Experience 1830-1980 (Oslo, 1980), pp. 76-80, argue that the failure to make the transition to steam hampered the subsequent 28 Britain and Norway, 1800-1845: two transitions Scandinavian commercial device was to buy ships at the very end of their working lives, very cheaply, and then simply keep them running, using small and low-paid crews. The tactic was so successful that it was still being used at the beginning of the second world war, when substantial quantities of Australian grain were still being carried to Britain and Germany in secondhand sailing ships under Scandinavian ownership.

39 The authors referred to above have all shown that British textile machine makers were very active in international markets. But the bulk of the 36 38 39 37 See Footnote 53, Ch. 1, p. 21, above. Mathias, First Industrial Nation, p. 232. M. Berg, The Machinery Question and the Making of Political Economy, 1815—1848 (Cambridge, 1980), p. 205. Kirk, Textile Machinery Industry, p. 3. 35 British technology and European industrialization empirical studies of the engineering industry are concentrated on the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and do not address the question of the impact of market-seeking by British firms on non-British economies during their early and mid-nineteenth-century industrialization.

A. Musson, 'The engineering industry', in R. ) The Dynamics of Victorian Business. Problems and Perspectives to the 1870s (London, 1980), p. 90. 32 Britain and Norway, 1800—1845: two transitions 28 industry, this movement being facilitated, Musson has argued, by the fact that machine tool production was standardized, 'ready-made' and mass produced much earlier than has been generally acknowledged. 29 This made it possible for firms to engage in what Musson calls 'the standardized manufacture of other products': By the second quarter of the nineteenth century, if not earlier, Manchester had become the most important centre of engineering in the country.

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