By William H. Marquardt
I discovered this booklet very priceless whilst discovering details on illnesses and their arthropod vectors. With a bankruptcy overlaying all the sickness vector teams it was once effortless to entry the data. occasionally I required additional info than used to be integrated in the bankruptcy, however the references indexed on the finish of every bankruptcy proved helpful.This ebook additionally covers more than a few similar themes which i have never wanted as but, e.g. body structure, keep watch over, and distinct methodologies for rearing, yet which glance attention-grabbing.
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THE EVOLUTION OF HEMATOPHAGOUS SALIVA A number of adaptations in arthropod mouthparts enabled hematophagy; however, once an arthropod is physically capable of withdrawing blood, an array of additional problems present themselves. Vertebrate hemostasis is highly redundant, in that platelet aggregation, blood coagulation, and vasoconstriction prevent blood loss from injured tissue. Consequently, there has been selective pressure for the evolution of salivary antihemostatic components for maintaining ﬂow during feeding (Ribeiro 1987).
The maxillae operate as a unit, and the mandibles function separately. The maxillae are closely apposed, forming the food and salivary tubes; the mandibles add rigidity. The labrum is quite short and inconspicuous. The subfamily Triatominae (Reduviidae — vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease), Cimex (“bedbugs” — Cimicidae), a few members of the Lygaeidae, and the Polyctenidae are hematophagous. All families arose from ancestors preadapted for solenophagy because most true bugs 13 Evolution of Arthropod Disease Vectors A Mandible Maxillary palp Labrum Labium Mandible Labial palp Lacinia Galea Maxillary palp Maxilla Maxilla Labial palp Labium B Maxillae Food Channel Maxilla Mandible Labrum Maxillae Mandible Labium Saliva Channel Labium ?
Food Channel Labial palp Anticoagulants - ? Vasodilators - ? Immunomodulator- ? Anesthetic ? Maxillae Food Channel F Labrum-epipharynx Mandible Hypopharynx + Saliva Channel Labium sheath Labium Maxillary palps Maxillae Anophelinae Anticoagulants - Anophelin Vasodilators - Peroxidase Immunomodulator-? Anesthetic ? Culicinae Anticoagulants - Apyrase, Anti-Factor Xa Vasodilators - Sialokinin I and II Immunomodulator - ? 2 (Continued) (C) Mouthpart and feeding morphology in Anoplura. (D) Mouthparts in Siphonaptera.