By R. A. Wallis
Read or Download Axial Flow Fans: Design and Practice PDF
Best engineering & transportation books
The "Building Code specifications for Structural Concrete" ("Code") covers the fabrics, layout, and development of structural concrete utilized in constructions and the place appropriate in nonbuilding buildings. The Code additionally covers the power review of latest concrete structures.
Among the topics lined are: agreement files; inspection; fabrics; toughness necessities; concrete caliber, blending, and putting; formwork; embedded pipes; development joints; reinforcement information; research and layout; power and serviceability; flexural and axial quite a bit; shear and torsion; improvement and splices of reinforcement; slab platforms; partitions; footings; precast concrete; composite flexural individuals; prestressed concrete; shells and folded plate individuals; energy evaluate of current buildings; provisions for seismic layout; structural simple concrete; strut-and- tie modeling in Appendix A; replacement layout provisions in Appendix B; replacement load and energy aid components in Appendix C; and anchoring to concrete in Appendix D.
Extra resources for Axial Flow Fans: Design and Practice
Roughness density, too, can play an important p a r t ; an increase in "population" may not always lead to an increase in skin friction. <17> I t is fairly obvious, therefore, that test data relating to the actual surface are most desirable. The finished products of certain manufacturing processes often possess a similarity in their surface condition. Hence test results from representative specimens of these products can provide useful data in estimating skin friction. Nevertheless, care must always be exercised when applying this information since, for example, cast steel produced by one foundry may have a surface significantly different from that produced by another.
2) and hence it is more convenient to use Θ, the momentum thickness. 11) which is the most basic Reynolds number to be discussed here. I t is obvious, however, t h a t for flow over aerofoils and along plates, etc. the above Reynolds number will vary with distance and thus some Reynolds number capable of expressing the integrated effect is required. Such numbers will be discussed in subsequent sub-sections but it must be remembered t h a t they can only be justified if they satisfy the requirements of boundary layer theory.
The variation of λ with x follows from eq. 12) which then permits the computation of the local skin friction coefficients, Cf, from eq. 20). The total skin friction force is obtained by integrating eq. 31) This integration can be carried out by simple graphical methods. 4. Turbulent Boundary Layers Because of the mathematical difficulties associated with calculating turbulent layer characteristics from the basic equations of motion, most of the formulae available are empirical. There is, however, a marked similarity between the forms of the laminar and turbulent equations and as full a use as possible will be made of this feature.