By Stanislav S. N. Gorb
In 1974 while I released my booklet, organic Mechanism of Attachment, now not many pages have been required to record at the attachment units of insect cuticles. As in so much fields of study, our wisdom in this particular topic has easily exploded. Dr. Stanislav N. Gorb now describes the current day point of our wisdom, to which he has for my part contributed a lot, and a study group engaged on organic microtribology has steadily built, additionally. With glossy tools of size it truly is attainable to go into the constitution – functionality courting even more deeply, even all the way down to a molecular point, which used to be impossible and a part many years in the past. it's a renowned undeniable fact that, in biology, the extra subtle the measuring procedure, the larger the fulfillment of organic primary learn, and its ensuing proof. Our wisdom is still at a definite point until eventually new equipment once again let a ahead bounce. organic wisdom develops within the kind of a stepped curve instead of linear, as mirrored within the stories performed at the attachment units of insect cuticles.
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Additional info for Attachment Devices of Insect Cuticle
The hook design can range from unicellular acanthae and multicellular setae, to spines and cuticular folds (Richards and Richards, 1979). 2. SNAP OR LOCK-AND-KEY PRINCIPLE This attachment principle includes systems with co-opted surface profiles: outgrowth and depression. In addition, both surfaces can be covered with tiny cuticle protuberances or depressions. In other words, the corresponding surfaces in these snap systems, correspond to each other as a lock-and-key. 1 Attachment during copulation The snap principle is widely represented in organ structures related to copulation.
The frenulum exists in both sexes. The corresponding structure is a multicellular seta, which has probably evolved from a group of single setae (Richards, 1981). In some cases, frenulum attaches to so called retinaculum, a group of setae located at the ventral surface of the forewing. Both frenulum and retinaculum are sexually dimorphic. The male retinaculum is usually called retinaculum subcostale, and the frenulum - frenulum simplex. The female retinaculum is called retinaculum subdorsale, whereas the frenulum - frenulum multiplicatum.
Tiny bristles with this function have been reported for crustaceans Dosima (Cirripedia, Lepadomorpha) and Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Decapoda, Brachiura) (Memmi and Elfimov, 1987; Morgan, 1989). 5 Sound generation Highly specialised areas of cuticle, responsible for sound generation, usually consist of co-opted patterns of cuticular plates, seldom of microtricha fields (Hinton, 1970). When these surfaces slide over each other, sound is generated (Fig. 7 C). , 1987; Pirisinu et al, 1988). The sound frequency corresponds to the periodicity of these structures contacting functionally-corresponding surfaces, and the speed of sliding.