Assembly language programming for the Atari computers by Mark Chasin

By Mark Chasin

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It is important to note this bit when doing signed math, and to allow a way for the program to deal correctly with such overflow, so it can still correctly interpret signed numbers, regardless of overflow. THE NEGATIVE FLAG The final flag in the processor status register is the negative flag, N . If this flag is 1, the previous operation yielded a negative result , and if the N flag is 0, the result was either positive or equal 32 Background to zero. Note that we can then determine whether a number is zero or positive by testing the Z flag.

That's where the concept of a stack comes in. BASIC uses a run-time stack , just like the stacks we have been discussing. When the GOSUB statement in line 10 was executed, the first thing BASIC did was to push the line number and offset within that line onto its run-time stack. This stack is distinct from the 6502 stack, since in all 6502-based computers, page 1, memory locations 256 to 511 inclusive, is used as a stack. Both of these stacks work just like the cafeteria; if we then push additional addresses onto the stack, the first address will simply move down the stack as additional numbers are added (Fig.

In contrast, let's look at an example of the JSR instruction: SUBO SUBl SUB2 JSR LDA STA JMP LDA STA RTS SUBl 111 752 SUB2 jjQ 752 iGOSUB SUBl ito inhibit cursor istore a 1 here ito avoid SUBl ito reset cursor istore a 0 here ilike BASIC' s RETURN imore code ... In this routine, we JSR to the subroutine labeled SUBl. The program then executes the lines in order, until an RTS (ReTurn from Subroutine) instruction is encountered. Program control then reverts to the line following the JSR that sent control to the subroutine in the first place.

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