Anatomy of the Dicotyledons: Volume II: Wood Structure and by C. R. Metcalfe, L. Chalk

By C. R. Metcalfe, L. Chalk

This revised variation of quantity II of the Anatomy of the Dicotyledons completes the overall creation to plant anatomy supplied by means of this confirmed botanical reference paintings. as well as a finished dialogue of wooden constitution and different subject matters (see desk of contents), quantity II contains a revised model of Takhtajan's taxonomic process for the Dicotyledons, on the way to be used because the foundation for family members descriptions in destiny volumes.

Show description

Read or Download Anatomy of the Dicotyledons: Volume II: Wood Structure and Conclusion of the General Introduction PDF

Best methods & materials books

Disaster Planning, Structural Assessment, Demolition and Recycling (Rilem Report, 9)

This publication comprises normal options for website clearing after man-made and usual failures. It offers directions at the demolition of broken constructions and the reuse of demolition and building fabrics. it's been ready by way of a world activity strength originating from cooperation among RILEM and UNESCO.

Nanotechnology in Eco-Efficient Construction: Materials, Processes and Applications (Woodhead Publishing Series in Civil and Structural Engineering)

Because the environmental effect of latest building and development fabrics comes less than expanding scrutiny, the quest for extra eco-efficient suggestions has intensified. Nanotechnology bargains nice capability during this sector and is already being primary to nice luck. Nanotechnology in eco-efficient development is an authoritative advisor to the position of nanotechnology within the improvement of eco-efficient building fabrics and sustainable building.

Steel: A Design, Cultural and Ecological History (Design, Histories, Futures)

Metal has, over centuries, performed an important position in shaping our fabric, and particularly, city landscapes. This books undertakes a cultural and ecological historical past of the fabric, reading the connection among metal and layout at a micro and macro point – by way of either what it's been used to layout and the way it has functioned as a 'world-making force'.

Additional resources for Anatomy of the Dicotyledons: Volume II: Wood Structure and Conclusion of the General Introduction

Example text

The measured stress–strain process during testing (T = 500 °C) is shown in Fig. 2-10. There are three loci found on the stress–strain curves of concrete specimens under repeated loading and they have definite physical meaning. • The envelope is an outline along the outer boundary of all the curves. It shows the maximum stress or strength of the concrete at corresponding strain values and coincides in both shape and value with the complete stress–strain curve under monotonic loading (Fig. 2-5).

4 fc and the corresponding strain ɛ, or the secant slope at this point on a measured stress–strain curve. , ETp = fTc /ɛTp . The initial elastic modulus and the secant modulus at peak stress of the concrete vary with the testing temperature and are shown in Fig. 2-9. , (ET0 / E0 , ETp / Ep ) < (fcu / fcu , fc / fc ). The reason for this is that the decrease in the strength and the increase in the peak strain of concrete occur simultaneously, and the ratio between them has to reduce quickly. 8)) as that used for concrete at normal temperature, the ratio between the initial elastic modulus and the secant modulus at peak stress is certainly a constant and is independent of temperature.

Unloading curve When the stress is decreased to zero from any point (ɛu and σu) on the envelope, the residual strain (ɛs) is obtained. The measured ɛu and ɛs from each unloading curve of the specimens are expressed as the relative strains and drawn in Fig. 13) where ɛp is the peak strain at the corresponding temperature. The residual strain ɛs increases monotonically with the unloading strain ɛu, and also increases as the testing temperature (T, °C) increases. 15) the standardized curve, which starts from the point (1,1) and unloads at the point (0,0), is obtained.

Download PDF sample

Rated 4.20 of 5 – based on 49 votes