By C. R. Metcalfe, L. Chalk
This revised variation of quantity II of the Anatomy of the Dicotyledons completes the overall creation to plant anatomy supplied by means of this confirmed botanical reference paintings. as well as a finished dialogue of wooden constitution and different subject matters (see desk of contents), quantity II contains a revised model of Takhtajan's taxonomic process for the Dicotyledons, on the way to be used because the foundation for family members descriptions in destiny volumes.
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Additional resources for Anatomy of the Dicotyledons: Volume II: Wood Structure and Conclusion of the General Introduction
The measured stress–strain process during testing (T = 500 °C) is shown in Fig. 2-10. There are three loci found on the stress–strain curves of concrete specimens under repeated loading and they have definite physical meaning. • The envelope is an outline along the outer boundary of all the curves. It shows the maximum stress or strength of the concrete at corresponding strain values and coincides in both shape and value with the complete stress–strain curve under monotonic loading (Fig. 2-5).
4 fc and the corresponding strain ɛ, or the secant slope at this point on a measured stress–strain curve. , ETp = fTc /ɛTp . The initial elastic modulus and the secant modulus at peak stress of the concrete vary with the testing temperature and are shown in Fig. 2-9. , (ET0 / E0 , ETp / Ep ) < (fcu / fcu , fc / fc ). The reason for this is that the decrease in the strength and the increase in the peak strain of concrete occur simultaneously, and the ratio between them has to reduce quickly. 8)) as that used for concrete at normal temperature, the ratio between the initial elastic modulus and the secant modulus at peak stress is certainly a constant and is independent of temperature.
Unloading curve When the stress is decreased to zero from any point (ɛu and σu) on the envelope, the residual strain (ɛs) is obtained. The measured ɛu and ɛs from each unloading curve of the specimens are expressed as the relative strains and drawn in Fig. 13) where ɛp is the peak strain at the corresponding temperature. The residual strain ɛs increases monotonically with the unloading strain ɛu, and also increases as the testing temperature (T, °C) increases. 15) the standardized curve, which starts from the point (1,1) and unloads at the point (0,0), is obtained.