By Robin W. Bates
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With these model outputs we can calculate the costs of different emission standards and of different policies to attain specified standards over the next 25 years. The model deals only with categories of emitters and generic categories of emission standards rather than specifying the size, spatial location, and emissions standards of specific sources. Consequently, the model cannot be used to analyze the cost of different ambient air quality standards or the cost of different means for achieving specified ambient standards: our policy simulations ignore ambient air quality constraints and focus only on the achievement of emission standards.
PJ/tonne). , PJ of coal, gas, or electricity per PJ total energy input). Another example can be given in terms of transport, where the Akj represent different levels of transport activities, the Tmkj represent different vehicle types or modes, and the Fmkj represent fuel efficiencies. With this notation, the following energy quantities can be defined: Eimkj= total amount of energy type i used by technology m for activity k in sector j 7 Additional discussion of the model can be found in Cofala (1985) and Cofala et al (1990).
C. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Bates, Robin W. Alternative policies for the control of air pollution in Poland / Robin Bates, Janusz Cofala, Michael Toman. cm. 7) Includes bibliographical references. Air pollutionEconomic aspectsPolandMathematical models. Series. 73'926'09438dc20 93-45657 CIP Page iii Table of Contents Abbreviations of Physical Units vi Foreword vii Acknowledgments viii Abstract ix Chapter 1: Introduction 1 Background: Environment and Energy in Poland 2 Plan of the Study 7 Chapter 2: Conceptual Background 8 Measuring Emission Abatement Cost 8 Command Versus Incentive-Based Policies 8 Chapter 3: Analytical Framework 14 Final Energy Demand Calculations 14 Least-Cost Energy Supply 16 Measuring Social Costs of Abatement 18 Chapter 4: Design of Scenarios 19 Basic Economic Assumptions 19 Alternative Emissions Standards 20 Polish Command-and-Control Standards (CAC) 20 European Community Standards (EEC) 21 German Standards (GER) 21 Flat Rate Reductions (FRRED) 22 Comparison of Plant-Level Emission Standards 22 Alternative Economic Instruments 22 Uniform Emissions Taxes on Large Stationary Sources (ETAX1) 22 SO2 Trading by Large Sources (SO2TR) 23 Coal Tax (COALTX) 23 Uniform Emissions Taxes on all Sources (ETAX2) 23 Summary 24 Page iv Chapter 5: Model Results 27 Base Case Scenario 27 Energy and Emissions Differences Across Standards Scenarios 27 Energy and Emissions Differences Across Economic Policy Scenarios 28 Economic Impacts of Emission Controls 29 Chapter 6: Institutional Issues 36 Institutional Background 36 The Effect of Restructuring on Economic Incentives 37 Considerations for Policy Evaluation 39 Command and Control 39 Emission Fees 40 Emission Trading 42 Chapter 7: Concluding Remarks 46 Policy Considerations 47 References 48 Appendices: 1.