By J. M. Spaight
The legitimacy of aerial warfare, the Hague laws, codes for aerial struggle, the Madrid Debate of 1911, sovereignty or freedom of the air, belligerent access of impartial territory, seizure and confiscation, therapy of civilian enemy are one of many conventions of warfare mentioned during this booklet. comprises fold-out desk displaying how plane and airmen of belligerent or impartial nationality are handled once they fall into enemy fingers.
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There are historical precedents for the though not " defended," towns, and I do not think that they were cases of belligerents' exceeding their war rights. It seems to me, therefore, that a belligerent would be justified as interpreting" "undefended" in the Hague rule as meaning " not occupied by troops or otherwise in a position to offer armed resistance, "and that such a city as London cannot rely for immunity against attack on Article 25 of the Land War Regiement or on the corresponding Article 1 of the Convention on Naval Bombardments.
The Proposed Codes and Contraband Some of the other questions with which M. " Chief of these questions band of war. One arise but ; that of contra- of the most difficult and important chapters of maritime law of contraband is is concerned with the carriage difficulties its from causes which will and its importance not affect air contraband. Where every ounce of weight is of moment, one need " not anticipate any carriage of " conditional contraband beyond what may be dealt with on the principle de minimis non curat lex and it is the undefined and ; varying nature of " conditional contraband many responsible for sea contraband.
A difficult belligerent who in bombarding a great modern city would do well to consider whether his own cities were surely guarded from a similar method of Aerial bombardment might, of course, be attack. attempted by a very ruthless enemy who was confident To guard of his ability to defend his own cities. against the danger threatened from such a foe, three First, it might be possible to courses appear open. , which it would be establishments, installations, legitimate to bombard in naval war. barracks and garrisons, and all stores Secondly, and all factories, and private, of war material and supplies, might be removed from such cities, and any railway termini within their area converted into underground stations.