By David V. Alford
A whole realizing of the biology and existence histories of pest species is essential for all these excited about crop construction and crop defense. this crucial new name presents entire assurance of significant insect and mite pest species, basically in Northern Europe. Textbook of Agricultural Entomology is greatly divided into elements. the 1st half covers the exterior and inner positive aspects of the key insect and mite pest households, whereas the second one half offers distinct descriptions of significant pest species together with info on lifestyles background levels (vital info while contemplating keep watch over equipment) and the vegetation which those species assault.
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62). Fig. 61 A chafer grub - family Scarabaeidae. 6. Family ELATERIDAE (click beetles) (p. ) 5. ) (p. ) An exceedingly large family of often large to very large, convex beetles; adults often brightly coloured, with a metallic sheen; antennae 8to 10-segmented; abdomen with six visible sternites. Larvae typical of the superfamily; features of the anal segment (including the shape of the anal slit and the distribution of chitinized spines which are often arranged in a distinctive pattern) are often useful for distinguishing between species.
136) A small group of small, hairy, phytophagous beetles; antennae distinctly clubbed; tarsal formula 5-5-5, the tarsal claws distinctly toothed (Fig. 68). Larvae cylindrical, with well-developed thoracic legs; anal segment with a ventral pseudopod and a pair of dorsal processes (Fig. 69). EXAMPLE: Byturus tomentosus (raspberry beetle). 17. Family COCCINELLIDAE (ladybirds) (p. 137) Small to medium-sized, usually convex, hemispherical to oval beetles; head retracted into the pronotum; eyes large; antennae terminating in a 3-segmented club; mandibles bidentate apically (Fig.
79); antennae short but with a distinct scape and large, flattened apical club (Fig. 78c); elytra often concave posteriorly. Larvae apodous, with an enlarged thoracic region. Development occurs entirely within host plants in distinctive galleries, larvae of some species feeding on wood pulp and others upon ambrosia fungi that grow within the brood chambers. EXAMPLES: Ipinae - Xyleborus spp. (ambrosia beetles); Scolytinae - Scolytus mail (large fruit bark beetle). 42 The Main Groups of Insects and Mites ORDER DIPTERA (TRUE FLIES) Minute to large insects with a single pair of membranous wings, the hindwings reduced to small, drumstick-like halteres that function as balancing organs during flight; mouthparts suctorial but sometimes adapted for piercing.