By Jan Herrington; Thomas C Reeves; Ron Oliver
'A consultant to actual e-Learning' presents the instruments to use e-learning ideas throughout a number disciplines, with useful counsel on layout, improvement, implementation and overview. It contains case reviews and develops the conceptual framework for actual studying projects in on-line environments. desk OF CONTENTS -- what's real e-learning? -- real e-learning initiatives -- what's no longer actual e-learning? -- How learn does real e-learning must be? -- real e-learning and the conative studying area -- Designing and generating real e-learning classes -- evaluate of genuine e-learning -- comparing genuine e-learning classes -- discovering real e-learning
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Extra resources for A guide to authentic E-learning
1 summarises Wiggins’ diﬀerentiation of authentic and traditional assessment. , 1991). A Framework for Implementation This chapter has described nine key elements of an authentic e-learning approach based on literature and research into situated learning, anchored instruction, collaborative learning, scaﬀolding, authentic assessment, and other relevant research. 1 A Comparison of Authentic and Traditional Assessment (Wiggins, 1990) Authentic assessment Traditional assessment Direct examination of student performance on worthy intellectual tasks Requires students to be effective performers with acquired knowledge Relies on indirect or proxy items Present the student with a full array of tasks Attend to whether the student can craft polished, thorough and justifiable answers, performances or products Achieves validity and reliability by emphasising and standardising the appropriate criteria for scoring varied products “Test validity” should depend in part upon whether the test simulates realworld “tests” of ability Involves ill-structured challenges that help students rehearse for the complex ambiguities of professional life Reveals only whether students can recognise, recall or “plug in” what was learned out of context Conventional tests are usually limited to pencil-and-paper, oneanswer questions Conventional tests typically only ask the student to select or write correct responses–irrespective of reasons Traditional testing standardises objective “items” and the one “right” answer for each Test validity is determined by matching items to curriculum content Traditional tests are more like drills, assessing static and too-often arbitrary elements of those activities provide a useful, integrated model for the instructional design of an e-learning course that would enable the authentic elements to be operationalised.
Indeed, it can be the central organising element of an entire course of study. Activity as Practice In the past, the view of activities as practice (such as exercises set by the teacher) was the norm. Brophy and Alleman (1991) deﬁned activities as: “Anything students are expected to do, beyond getting input through reading or listening, in order to learn, practice, apply, evaluate, or in any other way respond to curricular content” (p. 9). Similarly, Lockwood (1992) stated that activities “encourage and aﬃrm learning .
95) Spiro et al. (1987) strongly criticised the tendency to oversimplify in learning environments. They accused such practice as motivated by convenience rather than eﬀectiveness of the learning design: Simpliﬁcation of complex subject matter makes it easier for teachers to teach, for students to take notes and prepare for their tests, for test-givers to construct and grade tests, and for authors to write texts. ” (p. 180) Is it ever appropriate to simplify contexts in education? Spiro et al. (1991a) conceded that simpliﬁcation may be appropriate when two essential conditions are met: the learning is at an introductory level and it is conducted in a well-structured domain.